Seismic Refraction Tomography and MASW Survey for Geotechnical Evaluation of soil for the Teaching Hospital Project at Mosul University


  • Nabil H. Al-Saigh Dams & Water Resources Research Center, University of Mosul, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Ahmed Jaddoa Al-Heety Collage of Science, University of Mosul, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Refraction Tomography, MASW, Geotechnical Investigation, Engineering Parameter


This study includes Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) survey. 12 shallow refraction profiles and 2 profiles for MASW were conducted in teaching hospital project site in Mosul University to delineate some of shallow soil engineering characteristics for construction purpose. The linear arrays by using 12 geophones with 10 Hz frequency are used. Both of compressional (P) waves and MASW data were acquired and interpreted using seismic tomography method and MASW methods to create 1-D shear velocity model respectively. A number of engineering parameters such as Concentration Index, Material Index, Density Gradient and Stress Ratio are calculated. The seismic velocity values ,engineering, consolidation ,and strength parameter show that the site have three layers just as follows: the first one is the upper layer which corresponds to recent superficial deposits is characterized by an incompetent rock quality, the second one is the middle one that corresponded mostly to the river deposits composed especially of River terraces and clays is characterized by fairly competent rock quality While the third one is the lower layer is corresponded to the upper part of Fat’ha formation which is mostly composed of marl layers is good competent rock quality .Hence the 3rd layer is suggested for engineering and foundation purpose.


Lankston, R.W. (1989). The Seismic Refraction Method: A Viable Tool for Mapping DOI:

Shallow Targets into the 1990s, Geophysics, vol. 54, pp.1535–1542.

Hodgkinson, J. and Brown, R.J. (2005). Refraction across an Angular Unconformity

between Nonparallel TI Media”, Geophysics 70, D19.

Bridle, R. (2006). Plus/minus Refraction Method Applied to 3D Block, SEG Expand. DOI:

Abstr. 25, 1421.

Yilmaz, O., Eser, M. and Berilgen, M. (2006). “Seismic, Geotechnical, and Earthquake

Engineering Site Characterization”, 76th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded

Abstract, Vol.25, pp. 1401-1405.

Zhang, J. and Toksöz, M.N. (1998). Non-linear Refraction Travel time Tomography, DOI:

Geophysics, Vol.63, No.5, 1726-1737.

Andy A. Bery, (2013). High Resolution in Seismic Refraction Tomography for DOI:

Environmental Study, International Journal of Geosciences, Vol.4, pp. 792-796

Park, C.B., Miller, R.D., and Xia, J., 1999, Multi-channel analysis of surface waves, DOI:

Geophysics, Vol.64, No. 3, pp. 800-808.

Park, C.B., Miller, R.D., Xia, J., Hunter, J.A., and Harris, J.B., (1999). Higher mode

observation by the MASW method [Exp. Abs.]: Soc. Exploration Geophysics, pp. 524-

Miller, R.D., Xia, J., Park, C.B., and Ivanov, J., 1999, Multichannel analysis of surface

waves to map bedrock,” The Leading Edge, Vol.18, No.12, pp.1392-1396.

Stokoe II, K. H., Wright, S.G., Bay, J.A., and Roesset, J.M., (1994). Characterization of

geotechnical sites by SASW method, in Geophysical characterization of sites,

International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Technical

Committee #10, edited by R.D. Woods, Oxford Publishers, New Delhi.

Xia, J., Miller, R.D., Xu, Y., Luo, Y., Chen, C., Liu, J., Ivanov, J., and Zeng, C., (2009),

High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method: Journal of Earth Science, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 563- DOI:

Al-Joubory, M.A.(1988),Geology of Mosul area East Tigris River,M.Sc. thesis , science

college ,Mosul university, 158 p. (In Arabic).

Bellen,R.C. Van, Dunnington, H. V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D.(1959), Lexique

Stratigraphique International. Asie, Iraq, 3c. 10a, 333 p.

Jassim S. Z. And Goff J.C. (2006). Geology of Iraq. 1st Edition Dolin, Prague and

Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic, 408 P.

Buday, T., (1980). The regional geology of Iraq Stratigraphy and Paleogeography, Dar

Al-Kutub publication House. Mosul -Iraq. 352 p.

Al-Dabbagh, T. H. and Al-Naqib, S. Q. (1991). Tigris River Terrace Mapping in Northern

Iraq and Geotechnical Properties of the Youngest Stage. Quaternary Journal of

Engineering Geology. Geological Society. Special Pub., Vol.7, pp. 603-609.

Reynolds, J. M., (2011). An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, DOI:

Wiley; 2nd edition, 712 p.

Bowles, J.E. (1982).Foundation Analysis and Design”, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill

International Book Company, London, 587 p.

Khalil, M. H., Hanafy, S.M., (2008). Engineering application of seismic refraction

method: A field example at Wadi Wardan,Northeast Gulf of Suez, Egypt ,Journal of

Applied Geophysics ,Vol.65, pp.132-141.

Adams, L. H. (1951). Elastic Properties of Materials of the Earth's Crust. Internal

Construction of the Earth (edited by Gutenberg), Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Salem, H.S., (1990). The Theoretical and Practical Study of Petrophysical, Electric and

Elastic Parameters of Sediments, Germany, Kiel Insitut for Geophysik. Ph.D. Thesis.

King, T.V.V., (1966). Mapping Organic Contamination by Detection of Clay-Organic

Processes, Proceeding AGWSE/ NWWA/API.

Toksoz, M.N., Cheng, C.H. and Timur, A., (1976). Velocities of Seismic Waves-Porous DOI:

Rocks, Geophysics, Vol.41, pp. 621–645.

Abd El-Rahman, M. (1991), The Potential of Absorption Coefficient and Seismic Quality

Factor in Delineating Less Sound Foundation Materials in Jabal Shib Az Sahara Area,

Northwest of Sanaa, Yemen Arab Republic”, Egypt, M.E.R.C. Earth Sci., Vol. 5. Ain

Shams University, pp. 181–187.

Abdel- Rahman, M.; Helal, A.N.M.A.; Mohamed, H.C. and Al-Malqi, I.

(1994).Exploration Seismic for Site evaluation of the new city of El-Minya, Egypt-

E.G.S. proc. of the 12th Ann. Meet. 59-74p.

Abd El-Rahman, M. (1989). Evaluation of the Kinetic Elastic Moduli of the Surface

Materials and Application to Engineering Geologic Maps at Maba-Risabah Area

(Dhamar Province), Northern Yemen, Egypt. J. Geol. 33(1–2), 229–250.

Birch, F. (1966). Handbook of Physical Constants, Geol. Society of America. Memoir. 97, DOI:

Gassman, F. (1973). Seismische Prospektion, Birkhaeuser Verlag, Stuttgart, 417 p. DOI:

Tatham, R.H. (1982). Vp/Vs and Lithology, Geophysics 47(3), 336–344. DOI:

Sheriff, R.E. and Geldart, L.P. (1986). Exploration Seismology, Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge, 316 p.



How to Cite

Seismic Refraction Tomography and MASW Survey for Geotechnical Evaluation of soil for the Teaching Hospital Project at Mosul University. (2013). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 16(1), 1-14.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >>