Measurement of Radioactivity Levels in Daily Intake Foods of Erbil City Inhabitants


  • Ali Hassan Ahmed Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Ahmed Ismael Samad Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Radioactivity, Gamma spectroscopy, CR-39, Foodstuff


This work investigates the natural 226Ra,232Th,40K, 222Rn,220Rn and man-made137Cs radionuclides in foodstuff elements consumed by Iraqi Kurdistan region population (Erbil).The measurements were carried out by using a high efficiency NaI(TI) gamma-ray spectrometerandCR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The estimated average activity concentrations in foodstuff were found to be0.17Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 0.183 for 232Th, 515.5Bq kg-1 for 40K, for 137Cs and 108.46Bq.m-3 for 222Rn.The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in foodstuff was ranged from 0.01μSv.year-1 to 270.8μSv.year-1whichlies within the standard safety range of consumption.


M. Pöschl, L. M. L. Nollet, Radionuclide concentrations in food and the environment, CRC

Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA, (2007).

F. A.George, P.A.Mark, Foodstuffs and cancer: Analysis of radionuclides and Its radiation

levels in common Ghanaian Maize. Int. Journal of Science: Basic and Applied Research.12(1):1-7(2013).

C. Canbazog lu, M. Dogru, A preliminary study on 226Ra,232Th,40K and 137Cs activity

concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazıg Region,

Turkey. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 295:1245–1249 (2013). DOI:

F. A.Herna, J. A.Herna, A.Catala,.J. C.Ferna and M. I.Landeras, Activity concentrations and

mean annual effective dose of foodstuff on the Island of Tenerife, Spain. Journal of Radiation

Protection Dosimetry.111 (2): 205-210(2004). DOI:

H. S. Ibrahim, Radiological study on soils, foodstuff and fertilizers in the Alexandria Region,

Egypt. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences31: 9-17 (2007).

C. Roselli, D. Desideri, A. Rongoni, D. Saetta, L. Feduzi, Radioactivity in coffee. Journal of

Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 295:1813–1818(2013). DOI:

A.A Tawalbeh,K.M Abumurad,S.B. Samat,. M. SYasir, A study of natural radionucde

activities and radiation hazard index in some grains consumed in Jordan. Journal of Analytical

Sciences. 15(1): 61 – 69(2011). DOI:

V.Scheibel, C.R Appoloni, H. Schechter,Natural radioactivity traces in South-Brazilian cereal

flours by gamma-ray spectrometry. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry270 (1):


IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation Measurement of radionuclides in food

and the environment.In: Technical report series 295.IAEA, Vienna,(1989).

A. Tareq, N.Tiruuvachi, A.Alla,A.Taher, Radioactivity of long lived gamma emitters in milk

powderconsumed in Kuwait and estimates of annual effective dose. Kuwait Journal of

Scientific & Engineering. 39:143-158(2012). DOI:

A.H. Zakariya, S. J. Mohamad,H.I.,Asaad Measurement of radium content and radon

exhalation rates in building material samples using passive and active detecting techniques.

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research.4:1827-1831 (2013).

L. A. Najam, M.Firas AL-Jomail,M. Enas AL-Farah, Natural radioactivity levels of limestone

rocks in northern Iraqusing gamma-ray spectroscopy and nuclear track detector. Journal of

Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 289: 709–715(2011). DOI:

M. A.Saeed, N. A.Wahab, I.Hossain, R.Ahmed,H. Y.Abdullah, A. T.Ramli and A.T.Bashir,

Measuring radioactivity level in various types of rice using hyper pure germanium (HPGe)

detector. Journal of Physical Sciences 6 (32): 7335 – 7340(2011).

ICRP,International Commission on Radiation Protection,"Radionuclide Release into the

Environment, Pergamum press, Oxford and New York,(1987).

ICRP, (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Age-dependent doses to

members of the public from intake of radionuclides, ICRP Publication 119(2012).

UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation. Report

to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York(2000).

UNSCEAR, Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation United Nations Sales Publications No.

E.10.Xi.3 Volume I. Report to General Assembly. Annex B: Report to General Assembly,

with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, NewYork,(2008).



How to Cite

Measurement of Radioactivity Levels in Daily Intake Foods of Erbil City Inhabitants. (2014). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 16(4), 111-121.