Identification of Human Cytomegalovirus by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Compared with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)


  • Gaza F. Salih Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Hassan M. Tawfeeq Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Bryar E. Nuradeen Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Identification of Human Cytomegalovirus, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)


The main aim of this study is to identify human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
among suspected patient in Sulaimani city by using PCR technique The serological tests
are currently the only methods widely available in our country. However, newer methods
e.g.: (PCR) for (HCMV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification can diagnose
HCMV disease in its very early stage. Thirty-six sera samples of patients who were
suspected by physician were collected at Sulaimani Public Health Laboratory from 13
July to 24 August of 2008. The study for the detection of HCMV DNA was carried out,
in Kurdistan Technology and Scientific Research. The study shows that (24) cases out of
36 (66.67%) were positive by PCR. In the male group there were 7 (63.636%) positive
cases from the total of 11 samples and in the female group 17 (68%) out of 25 samples
were positive. In the abortion group there were 13 (68.421%) positive case from a total
of 19 samples. In suspected immunocompromised group from the total of 12 samples,
HCMV DNA was detected in 7 (58.33%), and in the other cases 4 (80%) out of 5
samples were seropositive. The sensitivity and specificity of serological tests for CMV
IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was 29.16 and 100%, while
the sensitivity and specificity of serological test for CMV IgG was 70.83 and 25%
respectively. This study confirms the results of the previous studies in that PCR can be
considered as gold standard.


Adjei, A.A.; Armah, H.B. and Narter-Olaga, E.G. (2006). Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus

Among Some Voluntary Blood Donors at the 37 Military Hospital, ACCRA, Ghana.Ghana Medical

Journal.40(3): 99-104.

Arabpour, M.; Kaviyanee, K.; Jankhah, A. and Yaghobi, R. (2007). Human cytomegalovirus infection

in women of childbearing age throughout Fars Province - Iran: a population-based cohort study, Malaysian

Journal of Microbiology, 3(2): 23-28.

Bhatia, J.; Shah, BV.; Mehta, A.P.; Deshmukh, M.; Sirsat, R.A. and Rodrigues, C. (2004). Comparing

Serology, Antigenemia Assay and Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus

Infection in Renal Transplant Patients, JAPI. 52:297-300.

Boland, G.J.; De Weger, R.A.; Tilanus, M.G.J.; Ververs, C.; Bosboom-Kalsbeek, K. and De Gast,

G.C. (1992). Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Granulocytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction

Compared with the CMV Antigen Test, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 30(7): 1763-17

Caliendo, A.M.; George, K.ST.; Kao, S-Y.; Allega, J.; Tan, B-H.; Lafontaine, R.; Bui, L. and

Rinaldo, C.R. (2000). Comparison of Quantitative Cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR in Plasma and CMV

Antigenemia Assay: Clinical Utility of the Prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR Test in Transplant

Recipients Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38(6): 2122-2127.

Compton, T.; Kurt-Jones, E.A.; Boehme, K.W.; Belko, j.; Latz, E. Golenbock, D.T. and Finberg,

R.W. (2003). Human Cytomegalovirus Activates Inflammatory Cytokine Responses via CD14 and Toll-Like

Receptor, Journal of Virology, 77(8): 4588–4596.

Daniel, W.W. (1995). Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 6th edition, DOI:

Canada, 312-365.

Delgado, R.; Lumbreras, C.; Alba, C.; Pedraza, M.A.; Otero, J.R.; Gomez, R.; Moreno, E.; Noriega,

A.R. and Paya, C.V. (1992). Low Predictive Value of Polymerase Chain Reaction for Diagnosis of

Cytomegalovirus Disease in Liver Transplant Recipients, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 30(7): 1876-1878.

Gerna, G.; Zipeto, D.; Parea, M.; Revello, M.G.; Silina, E.; Percivalle, E.; Zavattoni, M.; Grossi, P.

and Milanesi, G.(1991). Monitoring of human cytomegalovirus infections and ganciclovir treatment in heart

transplant recipients by determination of viremia, antigenemia, and DNAemia. J. Infect. Dis. 164:488-498. DOI:

Halwachs-Baumann, G.; Genser, B.; Pailer, S.; Engele, H.; Rosegger, H.; Schalk, A.; Kessler, H.H.

and Truschnig-Wilders, M. (2002). Human cytomegalovirus load in various body fluids of congenitally

infected newborns, Journal of Clinical Virology, 25: S81-S87

Mackay, I.M.; Arden, K.E. and Nitsche, A. (2002). Survey and Summary Real-time PCR in Virology, DOI:

Nucleic Acids Research, 30(6): 1292-1305.

Mansat, A.; Mengelle, C.; Chalet, M.; Boumzebra, A.; Mieusset, R.; Puel, J.; Prouheze, C. and

Segondy, M. (1997). Cytomegalovirus detection in cryopreserved semen samples collected for therapeutic

donor insemination, Human Reproduction, 12(8):1663–1666.

Marchini, A.; Liu, H. and Zhu, H. (2001). Human Cytomegalovirus with IE-2 (UL122) Deleted Fails DOI:

To Express Early Lytic Genes. Journal of Virology. 75(4): 1870-1878.

Melnychuk, R.M.; Streblow, D.N.; Smith, P.P.; Hirsch, A.J.; Pancheva, D. and Nelson, J.A. (2004).

Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded G Protein-Coupled Receptor US28 Mediates Smooth Muscle Cell

Migration through Gα12, Journal of Virplogy, 78(15): 8382-8391.

Munro, S.C.; Hall, B.; Whybin, L.R.; Leader, L.; Robertson, P.; Maine, G.T. and Rawlinson, W. D.

(2005). Diagnosis of and Screening for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women, Journal of Clinical

Microbiology, 43(9): 4713–4718.

Nester, E.W.; Anderson, D.G.; Roberts, C.E. and Nester, M.T. (2007). Microbiology a human

Perspective, 5th edition ,McGraw–Hill. NewYork. : 231 & 753.

Pouria, S.; State, O.I.; Wong, W.; and Hendry, B.M. (1998). CMV infection is associated with

transplant renal artery stenosis, Q J Med. 91: 185-189.

Revello, M.G. and Gerna, G. (2002). Diagnosis and Management of Human Cytomegalovirus

Infection in the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Infant, Clinical Microbiology, 15(4): 680-715.

Schaade, L.; Kockelkorn, P.; Ritter, K. and Kleines, M. (2000). Detection of Cytomegalovirus DNA in

Human Specimens by LightCycler PCR, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38(11): 4006-4009.

Yue, Y.; Zhou, S.S. and Barry, P.A. (2003). Antibody responses to rhesus cytomegalovirus

glycoprotein B in naturally infected rhesus Macaques, Journal of General Virology, 84: 3371–3379.



How to Cite

Identification of Human Cytomegalovirus by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Compared with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (2015). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 17(2), 191-200.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>