Microbiological and mycotoxin risk assessment in ruminant feeding in Sulaimani governorate


  • Hozan Jalil Hamasalim Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Karwan Muhamad Hama-Khan Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Sarwar Muhamad Sadq Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author




Ruminant Feed, Microbiological Quality, Identification of Fungal and Mycotoxin


Background: Feed contamination and poisoning by microbial and fungal genera pose
obvious health threat to animals.

Method: Vesa, ZAB, MIK, Deern, Zano and Zizar types
of ruminant feed used in Sulaimani Governorate were analyzed for their bacterial and
fungal quality. Identification of fungal isolates with determination of aflatoxin,
ochratoxin and T-2 toxin for all trademarks and local feed and the prime target of this
research would be background foreshadow for some danger of ruminant feedstuff in
Sulaimani governorate and taking these aspects in consideration to assess
microbiological quality and mycotoxins in ruminant feed.

Result: The genera of bacteria
and fungi isolated and their occurrence were Salmonella sp., total plate count and total
fungal count. Based on standard method identification of fungal species in brands
ruminant feed and local ruminant feed, the all commonly isolated genera were
Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp and Fusarium spp. Finally, detected concentration of
each aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin in brands ruminant feed and local ruminant
feed. Most types of ruminant feed under study were lower than the maximal standard
limits of aflatoxin while all types of brands ruminant feed and local ruminant feed under
study were lower than the maximal tolerance limits of ochratoxin and T-2 toxin.


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How to Cite

Microbiological and mycotoxin risk assessment in ruminant feeding in Sulaimani governorate. (2016). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 18(1), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10451

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