Direct In Vitro Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L. CV. Benaty) from Apical and Lateral Buds


  • Rafail S. Toma Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Yousif S. Tamer Ministry of Education, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Ficus carica L., In vitro, Micropropagation, Activated charcoal


Benaty fig plant was successfully propagated by tissue culture technique and a
reproducible and reliable micropropagation protocol was developed through this
investigation. At initiation stage, healthy aseptic cultures from lateral and terminal bud
explants of about 85% were achieved when the explants were treated with 0.15% HgCl 2
for 7 minutes. A combined solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid (100 and 150 mgl -1 )
was successfully used to overcome the problem of phenolic compounds exudation from
the explants into the culture media. At shoot multiplication stage, the addition of 2.0 mgl -
1 from both BA and kinetin gave the highest number of shoots per explant estimated at
2.66 and 3.33 shoots/ explant respectively. As well as, activated charcoal promoted
shoots multiplication in all multiplication parameters. The highest number of shoots per
explants (5 shoots/ explant) was obtained on MS medium containing 4.0 gl -1 AC. At root
formation stage, the interaction treatment of full MS salt strength with the use of 0.25
mgl -1 NAA gave the highest rooting percentage reaching 87.5%. The highest number of
roots (18.5 roots/ explant) was recorded as well from the combined treatment of full MS
salt strength with the use of 0.25 mgl -1 NAA. While the longest roots (6.66 cm) were
recorded from the interaction treatment of half salt strength and 0.50 mgl -1 IBA. The
addition of activated charcoal to the rooting culture medium decreased the rooting
percentage from 87.5% at control treatment to 50% and 62.5% when 2.0 and 4.0 gl -1 AC
were respectively added. The in vitro propagated fig plantlets were gradually moved in a
successful way from lab to field conditions with 95% survival rate.


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How to Cite

Direct In Vitro Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L. CV. Benaty) from Apical and Lateral Buds. (2016). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 18(1), 77-88.

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