Comparison between Vertical-Horizontal and Horizontal-Vertical hybrid constructed wetlands.

Authors

  • Khasraw A. Rashid Soil and Water Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Qadri Karim Salh Soil and Water Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10512

Keywords:

Wastewater treatment, Phytoremediation, Environmental pollution, HCW design

Abstract

Water pollution cause serious health risk to public. Treating wastewater in allow cost efficient way is necessary for the region. This project was designated to describe the usefulness of macrophytes Typha angustifolia L and Phragmites australis, since this could be an index for its utility as a biological purifier for advanced treatment of wastewater. For this purpose a specific model treatment project was hybrid constructed wetland. Constructed wetlands have become a good alternative to urban wastewater treatments. To achieve higher treatment performances, the HCW has various types. The project consists of several purification treatment units; Storage tanks, pre-sedimentation and two hybrid constructed wetlands. They are designed as (Vertical-Horizontal and Horizontal-Vertical) HCW, along with sand filtration implemented with two local macrophytes (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Experimental hybrid constructed wetlands contain macrophytes, they have grown for 50 days (the period needed for stabilization and adaptation), and taken untreated and treated wastewater samples twice a month periods from June 15, 2013 until September 15, 2013. Water samples were analyzed to determine the some heavy metals in inlet and outlet HCW. Results showed that the decreases in Iron, Copper, Cadmium and Lead contents in the outlet wastewater treatment in (Vertical- Horizontal) HCW higher decreases than (Horizontal-Vertical) HCW. These results showed the design (Vertical-Horizontal) HCW better than the design (Horizontal- Vertical) HCW to wastewater treatment.

References

Vymazal, J. (2005). Horizontal subsurface flow and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Review.Ecological Engineering; 25: 478–49 8–406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.07.010

Cunningham, W.P. and Saigo, B.W. (2001). Environmental Science: A global comcern. 6th.Ed. McGraw- Hill. USA; pp: 646

Shekha, Y.A., and Al-Abaychi, J.K. (2013).Assessment of monthly variation of two water bodies in Hawler Governorate.Journal of University of Zakho, Vol l.(A) No.1 pp: 434-444

Graham, L.E.; Graham, J.M. and Wilcox, L.E. (2006).Plant biology.2nd.Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. USA. 670pp.

Kadlec R. H. and Knight, R.L. (1996).Treatment Wetlands.CRC Press.Lewis Publisheres Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

Denny, p., (1997): Implementation of constructed wetlands in developing countries. Water Science & Technology; 35 (5): 27 – 34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1997.0157

APHA, 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Wastewater, 20th edition. American Public Health Association (APHA), American water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington.

Al-Rawi, K. M.and Khalaf-Allah, A. M. (1980). Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. House Publishers,University of Musl, and Figures. EPA/530-R-01-014.

Hussain, B. A. (2010). Green areas in the city of Sulaimani: A study in urban geography. A thesis Submitted to the Council of Human Sciences College /Sulaimani University as partial fulfillment of master's Degree in geography. Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan. (In Kurdish Language).

Velayos, G., Turon, C., Comas, J., and Poch, M., 2006.Experience with constructed wetlands in Catalonia – state of the art, in: Proc. 10th Internat. Conf. Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, MADR 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 37-45.

Khwakaram, A.I. (2009). Phytoremediation of wastewater using some of aquatic macrophytes as biological purifiers for irrigation purposes.Ph.D. Thesis, college of Agriculture, University of Sulaimani.

Rump, H.H. (1999).Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Soil.Third edition.Wiley-VCH. New York. pp: 225

Hussein, R. O. (2005). Heavy metal contamination in some vegetable irrigation by wastewater of Duhok City, Kurdistan region, Iraq.M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Duhok.Duhok .Iraq.

Othman,M.A.(2006).Phytoremediation of wastewater using Typha angustifolia L. and Plantago Lanceolata L.for irrigation purposes. M.Sc.thesis. Coll. of Science. Univ. of Salahaddin. Hawler. Iraq.

Brodie, G.A., Hammer, D.A. and Tomljanovich, D.A. (1989). Treatment of acid drainage with a constructed wetlands at the Tennessee Valley Authority 950 coal mine. In: Hammer, D. A. (1990). Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Industrial and agricultural. Lew Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp. 201–209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003069850-18

Granholm, J.G. (2006). Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act 1976 PA 399, as Amended, and Administrative Rules. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Water Bureau; pp: 33-34

Sulaivany, R.O.H. (2005). Heavy metal contamination in some vegetables irrigated wastewater of Dohuk city- Kurdistan region –Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis, University.

Moore, J.W. and Ramamoorthy, S. (1984). Heavy Metals in Natural Waters, Applied Monitoring and Impact Assessment.Springer-Verlage, New York, YSA; pp: 268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9538-6

Hopkins, W. G. (1999). Introduction to plant physiology, 2 nd Edition. John wiley & Sons, Inc, USA.Lanza, G. R., Upatham S., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., and Upatham, S. (2004). Electron Microscopic Studies on Localization of Lead in Organs of Typha Angustifolia Grown on Contaminated Soil. Jour. Science Asia; 31: 49-5

Mustafa,O.M.M.(2006). Impact of sewage wastewater on the Environment of Tanjero River and its basin with in sulaimani, Kurdistan region of Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis .Coll.Science, Univ. of Baghdad. Iraq.

Mitchell, I.J. (2003). Water pollution.McGraw-Hill company, Newyork, USA; pp: 136.

Nriagu, J. O. (1998). Thallium in the Environment. Advances in environmental science and technology.

Tucker, M. Ray, D.H., and Stokes, C.E., (2003). Heavy metals in north Carolina Soils,NCDA&CS agronomic Division.

Abbawi, S.A. and Hassan, M.S. (1990).Practical Environmental-Engineering Water Analysis.Ministry of Education and Scientific Researches.Al-Hikma publishing House.University of Mousl-Iraq.

EPA. (1999).Municipal Solid Waste in the United States Facts.Environmental Protection Agency.

Lanza, G. R., Upatham S., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., and Upatham, S. (2004). Electron Microscopic Studies on Localization of Lead in Organs of Typha angustifolia Grown on Contaminated Soil. Jour. Science Asia; 31: 49-50.

Published

2016-06-20

How to Cite

Comparison between Vertical-Horizontal and Horizontal-Vertical hybrid constructed wetlands. (2016). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 18(2), 155-172. https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10512