Monitoring of Radioactive Background in Qlyasan Stream, Tanjero River and Derbendikhan Lake in Sulaimani Governorate/Kurdistan Region-Iraq.


  • Ahmed I. Khwakaram Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Derbendikhan Lake, Tanjero River, Qlyasan Stream, Background radiation, Annual Effective Dose


The study aimed to assess the background radiation and to calculate the annual effective dose of Qlyasan stream, Tanjero River and Derbendikhan Lake in Sulaimani Governorate. Although Qlyasan stream and Tanjero River were used intensively for irrigation purposes, they also used as sink for receiving a large volume of domestic and industrial wastewater without any treatment. Consequently, this may be led to different types of contamination such as radiation. Therefore the background radiation was measured at nine sites along Qlyasan stream, Tanjero River and after the confluence Point of Tanjero River by Derbendikhan Lake. The measurements were carried out in two periods, namely May and June 2015, by using a PRM-9000 Mazur nuclear radiation monitor instrument. The average background radiation of effective dose at destination sites was ranged from 0.07 to 0.08 µSvhr-1 in May, but in June, ranged from 0.06 to 0.10 µSv hr-1. The calculated average of the annual accumulated effective dose was varied between 0.105-0.175 mSv y-1, this finding was within the recommended permissible limit by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and (UNSCEAR). The highest average of annual accumulated effective dose was 0.175 mSv y-1 and measured at site S3of Qlyasan stream.


Pesce, S. F. and Wunderlin, D. A. "Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Córdoba Governorate (Argentina) on Suquía River", Water Research, Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 2915–2926, (2000). DOI:

Khan, F., Husain, T. and Lumb A. "Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada", Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 88, pp. 221-242, (2003). DOI:

Phiri, O., Mumba, P., Moyo, B.H.Z. and Kadewa, W. "Assessment of the impact of industrial effluents on water quality of receiving rivers in urban areas of Malawi", Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 237–244, (2005). DOI:

Mustafa, O. M. "Impact of Sewage Wastewater on the Environment of Tanjero River and Its Basin within Sulaimani City/NE-Iraq", M.Sc. Thesis, College of Science, University of Sulaimani. (2006).

Aziz, N. A., Salih, S. M. and HamaSalh, N. Y. "Pollution of Tanjero River by Some Heavy Metals Generated from Sewage Wastwater and Industrial Wastewater in Sulaimani District", Journal of Kirkuk University –Scientific Studies, Vol. 7, No.1, (2012). DOI:

Ahier, BA. and Tracy, BL. "Radionuclides in the Great Lakes Basin", Environmental Health Perspective. Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Vol. 103, pp. 89-101, (1995). DOI:

Atta, E. R. and Zakaria, Kh. M. "Evaluation of Some Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in Marine Environment of Alexandria Coastline, Egypt", Environmental Protection, Vol. 5, No. 17, pp. 1618-1629, (2014). DOI:

Jibiri, N. N. Amakom, C. M. and Adewuyi, G. O. "Radionuclide Contents and Physicochemical Water Quality Indicators in Stream, Well and Borehole Water Sources in High Radiation Area of Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria", J. Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, pp. 291-297, (2010). DOI:

Jibiri, N. N., Farai I. P. and Alausa, S. K. "Activity Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K in Different Food Crops from a High Background Radiation Area in Bitsichi, Jos Plateau, Nigeria", Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 53-59, (2007). DOI:

Ajayi, OS. and Achuka, J. "Radioactivity in drilled and dug well drinking water of Ogun State Southwestern Nigeria and consequent dose estimates", Rad. Prot. Dos., Vol. 135, No. 1, pp. 54-63, (2009). DOI:

Ajayi, OS. and Adesida, G."Radioactivity in some sachet drinking water samples produced in Nigeria. Iran", J. Radiat. Res., Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 151 -153, (2009).

IAEA SG. "Terminology Used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection", IAEA, Vienna. (2007).

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), "Safety Standards for protecting people and the environment. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards", GSR Part 3, IAEA, Vienna (2011).

Wild, A. "Soil and the Environment", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 287, (1993).

IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency), "Handbook of transfer parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments", IAEA, Vienna, Series No.364, (1994).

Poschl, M. and Nollet, L.M.L."Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment", CRC Taylor and Francis Group, New York. (2007). DOI:

UNSCEAR "Sources and Effects of ionizing Radiation", United Nations Scientific Committee on Effect of Atomic Radiation.Volume 1. New York. United Nations. (2000).

World Health Organization (WHO) "guidelines for drinking water quality", 4thedition (Geneva: WHO, 2011).

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), “Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection", Annals of ICRP, ICRP Publication 60, Vol. 21, No. 1-3, pp. 1-201, (1990).

Hussein, A. M., Abdullah, K. O. and Kareem, K. H., "Determination of Natural Isotope and Radionuclide of Out Door High Dose Rate in Garmik Area-kurdistan Region NE-Iraq", Journal of Kirkuk University-Scientific Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 88-105, (2010). DOI:

Kadhim, I. H. and Almayyali, A.O. "Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Water from Al-Shomaly District of Babylon, Iraq", General Health and Medical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.34-37, (2014).



How to Cite

Monitoring of Radioactive Background in Qlyasan Stream, Tanjero River and Derbendikhan Lake in Sulaimani Governorate/Kurdistan Region-Iraq. (2017). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 19(2), 109-114.