Inheritance of Some Growth and Yield Traits in Bread Wheat Using Line×Tester Analysis


  • Fatih Karim Hama Ali Department of Biotechnology and Crop Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Dana Azad Abdulkhaleq Department of Biotechnology and Crop Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Triticum aestivum L., Genotypes, Line × tester analysis, Combining ability, Growth and yield traits


Seven Bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) were used in this investigation. Three genotypes namely (Maroof, Aras, and Hasad) were used as female parents (lines) and four genotypes namely (Alla, Tamuz-2, Adana and Sabr Beg) were used as male parents (testers).The 12 F1’s hybrids with their 7 parents were evaluated during 2018-2019 growing season. Genotypes were crossed in a line×tester matting in Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with three replicates at two Locations; Kanipanka and Qlyasan, at Sulaimani city in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. The pooled analysis of variance confirmed that location had a significant effect on almost all of the studied traits, but it has no effect on grain yield plant-1. The results proved a significant difference between the studied locations in all characters except final yield. At Kanipanka location, Sabr Beg and the cross Maroof×Tamuz-2 granted the highest yield; 26.303  and 23.914 g plant-1respectively.At Qlyasan location Tamuz-2 and the cross Hasad ×Tamuz-2granted the highest yield;19.875 and 19.724 g plant-1 respectively. Tamuz-2 recorded the highest positive General Combining Ability values (2.331and 2.479) for grain yield plant-1 at Kanipanka and Qlyasan, respectively. The cross Maroof ×Tamuz-2 showed the maximum positive Specific Combining Ability effect values (3.034) for grain yield plant-1 at Kanipanka, while at Qlyasan the cross Aras×Sabr Beg record the maximum value with 1.743. Testers brought many variations in the expression of the trait grain yield plant-1 at Kanipanka and Qlyasan, respectively. At both locations, the ratio of σ2gca /σ2sca value was less than one (0.062 and 0.450) and the average degree of dominance value was more than one (4.005 and 1.490) which confirmed that non-additive gene effect was in control for the trait grain yield plant-1. The maximum desirable positive heterosis value (26.082) recorded by the crosses Maroof×Tamuz-2 at Kanipanka location, while at Qlyasan location the cross Aras×SabrBeg recorded the maximum desirable positive heterosis value (26.989) for grain yield plant-1.


Abberton, M., Batley, J., Bentley, A., Bryant, J., Cai, H., Cockram, J., Costa de Oliveira, A., Cseke, L.J., Dempewolf, H., De Pace, C. and Edwards, D. "Global agricultural intensification during climate change: a role for genomics", Plant Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 14, No.4, pp. 1095-1098. (2015). DOI:

Kumar, A., Mishra, V.K., Vyas, R.P. and Singh, V. "Heterosis and combining ability analysis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)", Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 209-217. (2011).

FAOSTAT, "Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations", Statistics, Rome, Italy. . (2019).

Shiferaw B., Smale M., Braun H., Duveiller E., Reynolds M., MurichoG. "Crops that feed the world 10. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by wheat in global food security",Food Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 291–317. (2013). DOI:

Lobell, D.B., Sibley, A. and Ortiz-Monasterio, J.I. "Extreme heat effects on wheat senescence in India", Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 2, p.186. (2012). DOI:

Fisher, R.A. "The arrangement of field experiments", Journal of Ministry of Agriculture, Vol. 33, pp. 503-513. (1926).

Fasahat, P., Rajabi A., Rad J.M., DereraJ."Principles and Utilization of Combining Ability in Plant Breeding", Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, 00085. (2016). DOI:

Yates, F. "Complex experiments". Supplement to the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,Vol. 2, pp. 181-223. (1935). DOI:

Tyagi, A.P., Lal P. "Line × tester analysis in sugar cane (Saccharumofficinarum)", South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 30-36. (2005). DOI:

Akbar, M., Anwar J. and Hussain M. "Line × tester analysis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 411- 420. (2009).

Sing, R.K., and Chaudhary B.D. "Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis", Revised Edition, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, New Delhi, India. (1985).

Matzinger, D.F. "Comparison of three types of testers for the evaluation inbred line of corn", Agronomy Journal,Vol. 45, pp. 493- 495. (1953). DOI:

Smith, O.S. "Covariance between line per se and testcross performance", Crop Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 540-543. (1986). DOI:

Hallauer, A.R., and Miranda J.B. "Testers and combining ability, in Quantitative genetics in maize breeding", In: Hallauer, A.R., and Miranda J.B. (Eds.) Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA. pp. 267-298. (1988).

Castellanos, J.S., Hallauer A.R., and Córdova H.S. "Relative performance of testers to identify elite lines of corn (Zea mays L.)", Maydica, Vol. 43, pp. 217-226. (1998).

Egli, D.B., "Seed biology and the yield of grain crops". CAB international. (1998).

Rajput, R. S., &Kandalkar, V. S. "Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield and its attributing traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 113-119. . (2018).

Fellahi, Z. E. A., Hannachi, A., Bouzerzour, H., &Boutekrabt, A. "Line× tester mating design analysis for grain yield and yield related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". International Journal of Agronomy, (2013). DOI:

Barot, H. G., Patel, M. S., Sheikh, W. A., Patel, L. P., &Allam, C. R. "Research Article Heterosis and combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.))". Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 350-359. (2014).

Hama-Amin, T. N., &Towfiq, S. "Estimation of some genetic parameters using linextester analysis of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". Applied ecology and locational research, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 9735-9752. (2019). DOI:

Hama-Ali,E.O. "Estimation of Heterosis and Heritability in Half Diallel Crossing in some Local Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". M.Sc.Thesis. College of Agriculture University of Sulaimani. (2006).

Istipliler, D., Ilker, E., Tonk, F. A., Gizem, C. I. V. I., &Tosun, M. "Line× tester analysis and estimating combining abilities for yield and some yield components in bread wheat". Turkish Journal of Field Crops, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 72-77. (2015). DOI:



How to Cite

Inheritance of Some Growth and Yield Traits in Bread Wheat Using Line×Tester Analysis. (2019). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 21(2), 131-148.