The Estimate of Cytokines and Fibroblast Growth Factors in Patients with Breast Cancer


  • Shvan Burhan Rafiq Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Heshu Sulaiman Rahman Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Kawa Amin Department of Microbiology/Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. & Department of Medical Science, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Author



Breast cancer, Cytokines, Fibroblast, Immune system, Inflammation, ELISA


Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide; it is a disease characterized by the growth of malignant cells within the mammary glands. It strikes males and females; there are diverse sorts of breast cancer. Cytokines and fibroblast growth factors that play a critical role in the development and progression of breast cancer. The aim of the present study is to assess the role and the level of certain cytokines, and fibroblast growth factors in the serum of patients with breast cancer. This is case-control study, blood samples were collected randomly from 60 newly diagnosed female patients, and 60 healthy female subject controls of all age groups. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines (Interleukin-19 and Interleukin-23) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF-18 and FGF-23) by using ELISA. There was a highly significant difference (p <0.001) detected in serum IL-19, IL-23, and FGF-18 levels of patients compared to healthy controls except for FGF-23, which was also recorded higher value in patients but not significantly compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation (p <0.001) between all these markers. The present study reveals significantly higher concentrations of the markers detected in patients’ blood serum compared to healthy individuals. The detection of the cytokines’ levels and their relations with breast cancer will affect the diagnosis, knowledge about the disease immunology and thereafter effects on the treatments of patients with breast cancer depending on our findings.


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How to Cite

The Estimate of Cytokines and Fibroblast Growth Factors in Patients with Breast Cancer. (2020). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 22(2), 9-16.

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