Phycolimnological study of some wastewater of Sulaimani Provience -Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Dalya S. Ahmed Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Trifa K. Farkha Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Physicochemical parameters, Wastewaters, Tanjaro River, Phytoplankton


This work is aimed to study the characteristics of some wastewater in Sulaimani city. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2018 to May 2019  from four  sites, two of them Site1:Tanjaro River before bridge,Site 2:Tanjaro River after bridge along  Tanjaro river , Site3:kana swra and Site4:Awbara from weast water of Sulaimani city box channels  which finally flow into Tanjaro river . To represent their water quality some physical , chemical and Biological  analysis were conducted. The  mean value of pH for all studied sites was found to be above 7 . The value of Electrical conductivity(EC) in Sites 1,2,3 and 4 were ranged between(407-601 µs/cm),( 266-585 µs/cm) ,( 773-1004 µs/cm) and(398-975 µs/cm)respectively, Turbidity ranged between(42-1001 NTU),( 57-986 NTU),( 32-1010.5 NTU) and(41-643 NTU) in Site 1,2,3 and 4 respectivly and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value  in Site 1,2,3 and 4 were ranged between(251-975.5 mg/L),( 275-926 mg/L),( 354-1025 mg/L) and(452-1025 mg/L) respectively. A total of 114 algal taxa were identified belonging to 7 classes, 63 taxa belonged to Bacillariophyceae species, they were the most abundant group (4 taxa belong to centrales and 59 taxa belonging to pinnales),  followed by 24 taxa of Cyanophyceae ,22 taxa chlorophyceae, , 2 taxa Pyrophyceae and 1 taxa for each of Euglenophyceae, Rhodophyceae and Xanthophyceae. Higher phytoplankton density was recorded  in Awbara (58269.44ind×103/L), while the  lowest density was recorded in Tanjaro River after the bridge which was (14300.2ind×103/L).


Usharani, K., et al., "Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Noyyal River and ground water quality of Perur, India." Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ,Vol.14, No.2. (2010).

(W.H.O.). World Health Organization. "Guidelines on Technologies for Water Supply System in small Communities". Eastern Activities. Amman. (1993).

Jia, H., Yuan, Q. "Removal of nitrogen from wastewater using microalgae and microalgae–bacteria consortia." Cogent Environmental Science,Vol. 2, No.1, (2016).

Hammouda, O., Gaber,A., and Abdelraouf, N. "Microalgae and wastewater treatment." Ecotoxicology and Environmental safety.Vol. 31, No.3, pp. 205-210. (1995).

Hoffmann, J.P. "Wastewater treatment with suspended and nonsuspended algae." Journal of phycology .Vol.34, No.5, pp.757-763. (1998).

Topare N.S., et al." Sewage/Waste Water Treatment Technologies" A Review, Scientific Review and Chemical Communication.Vol.1, No. 1, pp.18-24. (2011).

Ganoulis, J. "Risk Analysis of Water Pollution". 2nd ed.; WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA:Weinheim, Germany, pp. 1–311. (2009).

Ohioma, A. I., Luke, N. O., and Amraibure, O. "Studies on the pollution potential of wastewater from textile processing factories in Kaduna, Nigeria." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci .Vol.1, No.2. (2009).

Amin, A. A. "Evaluation of Wastewater Characteristics in the Urban Area of Sulaimanyah Governorate in Kurdistan-Iraq."‏ (2018).

-Hutchinson, G.E. "A treatise on Limnology". Wiley. Vol.2, pp .115. (1967).

Descy, J.P. "Ecology of the phytoplankton of the River Moselle: effects of disturbances on community structure and diversity." Hydrobiologia.Vol. 249, No.1-3, pp.111-116. (1993).

Rinella, D. J., & Bogan, D. L. "Toward a Diatom Biological Monitoring Index for Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, Streams". Environment and Natural Resources Institute, University of Alaska Anchorage. (2004).

Hu, C. X., & Liu, Y. D. " Primary succession of algal community structure in desert soil ". Acta. Botanica Sincia.Vol. 45, No.8 , pp.917-924. (2003).

Stevanovic, Z., and Markovic, M. "Hydrogeology of Northern Iraq. Vol. 1. Climate, hydrology, geomorphology & geology. Vol. 2. General hydrogeology and aquifer systems." (2004).

Maulood, B.K. and Hinton, G.C.F. "An ecological study onSarchinar water, chemical and physical aspects ̋. Zanco Science Journal Univ. Sulaimany, Iraq. Series A.Vol. 4 , No. 3, pp.93-117. (1978a).

(APHA) American Public Health Association. "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water ̋. 22th ed. Washington DC, USA. (2012).

Rump, H. H. "Laboratory manual for the examination of water, waste water and soil ". (No. Ed. 3). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.‏ (1999).

Furet, J. E., and Benson-Evans, K. "An evaluation of the time required to obtain complete sedimentation of fixed algal particles prior to enumeration". British Phycological Journal,Vol. 17, No.3, pp. 253-258. (1982).

Desikachary, T.V. ’’ Cyanophyta. ’’ Vol. 2. New Delhi. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. (1959).

Prescott, G.W. " The alga: A review. Houghton Mifflin comp. " Boston, pp .436. (1964).

Prescott, G. W. "How to know fresh water algae WMC Brown Co." Dubuque. Iowa. USA. (1978).

Prescott, G. W. "Algae of the western Great Lakes area, with an illustrated key to the genera of desmids and freshwater diatoms". Otto Koeltz Science Publishers. (1982).

Hustedt, F. "Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae)." Susswasser-flora Mitteleuropas.Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 1-466. (1930).

Hustedt, F. "The Pennate Diatoms". A Translation of Hustedt´SDie Kieslalgen. with Supplement by Norman G. Jensen. Printed in Germany by Strauss and Cramer Gmbh, pp .918. (1959).

Sdiq, K. H. "Ecological and Physiological Studies onSome Algae Species growth in Dukan Lake-Kurdistan Region of Iraq". M.Sc. thesis, University of Sulaymaniya. (2015).

Al-Barwre M. R,"Self-purification of the discharge arrived to valley stream of Duhok" Ph. D. Thesis. College of science, university of Mosul .(2013)

Meme, F. K., Arimoro, F. O., and Nwadukwe, F. O. "Analyses of physical and chemical parameters in surface waters nearby a cement factory in north central, Nigeria". Journal of Environmental Protection.Vol. 5, pp.826-834. (2014).

Zohary,M. ''The flora of Iraq and its phytogeographical subdivision''.Departmanet of Agriculutre. Iraq. (1950).

Chitnisa, V. "Bacterial population changes in hospital effluent treatment Plant in central India". Water Res. Vol.38, pp. 441-447. (2004).

Hassan, N. E., & Al-barware, M. R. A. "Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq".‏ Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal .Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7-13. (2016).

Shekha, Y.A., Haydar, H.A. and Al- Barzingy, Y. O.M. "The effect of wastewater disposal on the water quality and phytoplankton in Erbil wastewater channel". Baghdad Science Journal. Vol.7,No. 2, pp. 984-993. (2010).

Bilbas A.H.A. "Ecosystem Health Assessment of Dukan Lake, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region of Iraq". Phd.Dissertation. Higher Education Coll., University of Salahaddin-Hawler, Iraq. (2014).

Al-Barware M.R."Evaluation of the quality of irrigation water sources of celery plant Apium graveolens in Mosul city and the resultant pollution", Thesis, College of science, Mosul university. (2004).

Adefemi O.S, Asaola SS, Olaofe O."Assessment of the physico-chemical status of water samples from major dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria" Pakistan J. Nutri.Vol. 6, No.6, pp. 657-659. (2007).

Akoto O., Adiyiah J. "Chemical analysis of drinking water from some communities in the Brong Ahafa region" Int. J Envirron. Sci, Tech.Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 211- 214. (2007).

Fatoki O.SA, Muyima N.Y., lujiza N. "Situation analysis of water quality in the umtata river catchment" Water SA. Vol.27, pp. 467-473. (2011).

AL-Saffawi A.A, AL-barwre M.R, Al-Jahssany N.K. "Physical, Chemical and biological characteristic of Dohuk valley water" Tikit Journal of pure science.Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.54-60, (2009).

Al-Fatlawey, Y.F.K." Study the drinking water quality of some Baghdad drinking water treatment plants". Ph. D. Thesis. The university of Baghdad. Baghdad, Iraq. (2007).

Al-Haidary, M.G.S." The ecological affections that tolerance the industrial water of the general company of Al-Furatt for chemical industries in Al-Sadda in Iraq". MSc. Thesis, Collage of science, Babylon.(2003).

Shekha, Y. A. "Multivariate statistical characterization of water quality analysis for Erbil wastewater channel". ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.Vol.28,No. 3, pp. 142-151. (2016).

(WHO),World Health Organization."Guideline for Drinking Water Quality". 3rd edition, Recommendations, Geneva. Vol. 1, pp. 512-520. (2006).

Narragansett Bay Estuary Program. "State of Narragansett Bay and Its Watershed" Technical Report. (Chapter 15: Dissolved oxygen, pp. 276-296. (2017).

Julian, K.T., Marianne, S.,Shaun, R."Contaminated Groundwater Sampling and Quality Control. of Water Analyses".Environmental Geochemistry, 2nd ed..British Geological Survey: Nottingham, UK, pp. 25-45. (2018).

Hassan, N. E., Al-barware, M. R. A." Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq".‏ (2016).

Al-Jahssany. N.K, "Effect of domestic and industrial discharge water of Mosul city upon Tigirs water quality". Thesis. College of science, Mosul University (2003).

Aniyikaiye, T. E., et al. "Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater discharge from selected paint industries in Lagos, Nigeria". International journal of environmental research and public health.Vol.16, No. 7, pp. 12-35. (2019).

Dalrymple, O.,Yeh, D. and Trotz, M. "Removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine - disrupting compounds from wastewater by photocatalysis". J. Chem. Tech. Biotech.Vol. 82, pp. 121-134. (2007).

Mohammed, A. and Ali, A. "Biotreatment of AL-Karama teaching hospital wastewater using aerobic pached bed". J. Baghdad for Sci. Vol. 10, pp. 144-151. (2013).

Al-Enazi, M. S. "Evaluation of Wastewater Discharge from Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital and its impact on the Al-Khorah channel and Shatt Al-Arab River in Basra City-Iraq". Evaluation. Vol.6, No. 12. (2016).

Pandey, K., Shula, J.P. and Trivedi, S.P. "Fundamental of toxicology". New Book Agency. pp.356. (2005). ‏

Tchobanoglous, G. , Burton, F. and Stensel, H. "Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse". 4th ed. Metcalf & Eddy Inc . Mc Graw- Hill. New York, pp. 30-69. (2004).

Kwak, J., et al."Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Based on Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Absorption, and Fluorescence Measurement". Journal of Chemistry. (2013).

Aziz, R. J., Al-Zubaidy, F. S., Al-Mathkhury, H. J., and Musenga, J. "Physico-chemical and biological variables of hospitals wastewater in Erbil city". Iraqi Journal of Science.Vol.55, No. 1, pp. 84-92. (2014).

Bartram, J. and Ballance, R. ''A practical Guide to the Design and Immplementation of Freshwater Quality Studies and Monitoring Programs''. United Nations Environment Program and the World Health Organization.ISBN 0 419 22320 7. (1996).

Farkha, T. K." Astudy of the Distribution of phytoplankton and Aquatic Fungi in the lotic water in Bagdad District and the Effect of Enviromental Factors". (2006).

Yang, X-e. , et al. "Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication". J.Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. Vol.9, No. 3, pp. 197-209. (2008).

Reynolds, C.S. "The response of phytoplankton communities to changing lake Environment". Schweiz Z Hydrol.Vol. 49, pp. 220-236. (1987).

Giripunje, M. D., Fulke, A. B., Khairnar, K., Meshram, P. U. and Paunikar, W. N. "A Review of Phytoplankton Ecology in Freash water Lakes of India". Romanian Limnogeographical Association, Lakes, reservoirs and ponds, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 127-141. (2013).

Al-Barzingy, Y. O. M., Toma, J. J., and Shekha, Y. A. "Algal Survey in Wastewater Channel of Erbil City, Iraq". Diyala Journal For Pure Science.Vol. 12, No. 4-part 2, pp. 39-57. (2016).

Ramesha, M. and Sophia, S. "Species Composition and Diversity of Plankton in the River Seata at Seetanadi, the Western Ghats, India". Advanced Biotech.Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 20-27. (2013).

Hassan, F.M.,Salman, J.M. and Al-Yassiry, T.M.H. "Ecological Observation on Phytoplankton Species Composition in Wastewater Treatment Plant / Iraq". International Journal of Advanced Research. Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 344-356. (2014).

Vijayakumars, S., Thajuddin, N. and Manoharo, C. "Biodiversity of Cyanobacteria in industrials effluents". Acta. Bot. Malacitana.Vol. 32, pp. 1-8. (2007).

Chum-Xiang, H.C. and Young-Ding, L.Y. "Primary succession of algal community structure in desert soil". Acta. Botanica Sincia.Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 917-924. (2003).

Welch, P.S. "Limnology". (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York. pp.538. (1952).

Lampert, W., and Sommer, U. "Limnoecology: the ecology of lakes and streams".Oxford university press. (2007).

Dodson, S. "Zooplankton communities of restored depressional wetlands in Wisconsin, USA". Wetlands.vol 21, pp. 292-300. (2001).

Dodson, S. "Introduction to limnology". McGraw Hill Companies. USA. (2004).

Al-Tayyar, T.A., Shihab, A.S., Al-allaf, M.A. "Some environmental features of phytoplankton in Mosul dam lake". J. Dohuk University.Vol. 11, No. 1. (2008).

Polge, N., Sukatar, A., Soylu, E.N. and Gonulol. "Epipelic algal flora in the Küçükçekmece Lagoon." Turk. J. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci.Vol. 10, pp.39-45. (2010).



How to Cite

Phycolimnological study of some wastewater of Sulaimani Provience -Kurdistan Region of Iraq. (2020). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani, 22(2), 25-42.