Relationship between Medication Adherence and the Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Sulaimaniyah City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Authors

  • Derin Ahmed Khdir Medical/Surgical Department, College of Nursing, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Mohammed Omer Mohammed Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10892

Keywords:

Diabetes mellitus, medication adherence, glycemic control, patients counselling

Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) implies the highest incidence of diabetic cases. T2DM is related to metabolic ailments in the pancreas, kidneys, liver, and intestines.

 

Objective: To determine the impact of adherence to antidiabetic medication (ADMs) on glycemic control in T2DM patients.

 

Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 245 participants (119 intervention patients and 126 non-intervention patients) with T2DM in the Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq, from January to August 2021. ADMs used the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale Item 8 (MMAS-8). Also, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c %) were checked to assess glycemic control among the participants.

 

Results: The counseling program potentially improved ADMs as the rate of medium adherence increased significantly from 5.0% to 31.9% (p<0.001), with a significant improvement in glycemic control in the intervention group from 13.9% (before the intervention) to 21.8% (after the intervention) (p=0.039). However, there was no significant difference between ADMs and glycemic control (p>0.999).

 

Conclusion: Patients’ education and medication counseling significantly improved ADMs and glycemic control in people with T2DM.

References

Nauck M.A. & Meier J.J. (2020). GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 1 diabetes: a MAG1C bullet? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 8(4):262-264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30043-7

Zimmet P., Alberti K.G., Magliano D.J. & Bennett P.H. (2016). Diabetes mellitus statistics on prevalence and mortality: facts and fallacies. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 12(10):616-622. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2016.105

Chung W.K., Erion K., Florez J.C., Hattersley A.T., Hivert M.F., Lee C.G., McCarthy M.I., Nolan J.J., Norris J.M., Pearson E.R. & Philipson L. (2020). Precision medicine in diabetes: a consensus report from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 43(7):1617-1635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dci20-0022

Grunberger G., Sherr J., Allende M., Blevins T., Bode B., Handelsman Y., Hellman R., Lajara R., Roberts V.L., Rodbard D. & Stec C. (2021). American Association of Clinical Endocrinology clinical practice guideline: the use of advanced technology in the management of persons with diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Practice. 27(6):505-537. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2021.04.008

Decroli E. (2019). Diabetes melitus tipe 2. Padang: Pusat Penerbitan Bagian Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas.1-52.

Imran S.A., Agarwal G., Bajaj H.S. & Ross S. (2018). Targets for glycemic control. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 42:S42-S46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.10.030

Kumar A., Aswal S., Chauhan A., Semwal R.B., Singh R., Andola H.C., Joshi S.K. & Semwal DK. (2022). Antidiabetic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia roxburghiana. Natural Product Research. 36(5):1300-1305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1858414

Sherwani S.I., Khan H.A., Ekhzaimy A., Masood A. & Sakharkar M.K. (2016). Significance of HbA1c test in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic patients. Biomarker Insights. 11:S38440. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4137/BMI.S38440

Chaudhury A., Duvoor C., Reddy Dendi V.S., Kraleti S., Chada A., Ravilla R., Marco A., Shekhawat N.S., Montales M.T., Kuriakose K. & Sasapu A. (2017). Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 8(6):1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00006

Morisky D.E. & DiMatteo M.R. (2011). Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence: response to authors. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 64(3):255-257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.09.002

Omar H.S., Zhian S.R. & Raza M.A. (2021). Relationship between self-care behaviours and glysemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes millitus in Sulaimani City, Iraq. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 21(2):3033-3039.

Ajibola S.S. & Timothy F.O. (2018). The influence of national health insurance on medication adherence among outpatient type 2 diabetics in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Patient Experience. 5(2):114-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2374373517732384

Gelaw B.K., Mohammed A., Tegegne G.T., Defersha A.D., Fromsa M., Tadesse E., Gunasekaran T. & Ahmed M. (2014). Nonadherence and contributing factors among ambulatory patients with antidiabetic medications in Adama Referral Hospital. Journal of Diabetes Research.2014:1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/617041

Bakar Z.A., Fahrni M.L. & Khan T.M. (2016). Patient satisfaction and medication adherence assessment amongst patients at the diabetes medication therapy adherence clinic. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 10(2):S139-S143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.03.015

Adikusuma W. & Qiyaam N. (2018). Adherence level and blood sugar control of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who gets counseling and short messages service as reminder and motivation. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.11(2):219-222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.22988

Lin L.K., Sun Y., Heng B.H., Chew D.E. & Chong P.N. (2017). Medication adherence and glycemic control among newly diagnosed diabetes patients. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care. 5(1):e000429. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000429

Diehl A.K., Bauer R.L. & Sugarek N.J. (1987). Correlates of medication compliance in non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus. Southern Medical Journal. 80(3):332-335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007611-198703000-00014

Loke S.C. & Jong M. (2008). Metabolic control in type 2 diabetes correlates weakly with patient adherence to oral hypoglycaemic treatment. Annals-Academy of Medicine Singapore. 37:15-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47102/annals-acadmedsg.V37N1p15

Waari G., Mutai J. & Gikunju J. (2018). Medication adherence and factors associated with poor adherence among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on follow-up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Pan African Medical Journal. 29(1):1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.29.82.12639

Mansour A.A. (2009). Chronic complications of diabetes in Iraq: experience from southern Iraq. Clinical medicine. Endocrinology and Diabetes. S3657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4137/CMED.S3657

Mansour A.A. & Imran H.J. (2006). Foot abnormalities in diabetics: Prevalence and predictors in Basrah, Iraq. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 22(3):229-233.

Williams B., Mancia G., Spiering W., Agabiti R.E., Azizi M., Burnier M., Clement D., Coca A., De Simone G., Dominiczak A. & Kahan T. (2018). Practice Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Hypertension. Blood Pressure. 27(6):314-340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08037051.2018.1527177

Published

2023-06-20

How to Cite

Relationship between Medication Adherence and the Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Sulaimaniyah City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. (2023). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 25(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10892

Most read articles by the same author(s)