Awareness regarding hypertension complications among hypertensive patients attending Kalar General Hospital in Sulaimaniyah province of Iraq


  • Rahman Othman Hussein Department of Nursing, Kalar Technical College, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Omed Ahmed Muhammed Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Garmyan, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Awareness, hypertension, complication


Background: Hypertension complications are amongst the principal cause of admission in most healthcare facilities worldwide. Unawareness of hypertension complications increases morbidity and mortality rate. Patients' awareness regarding hypertension and its complications plays an important role in preventing or delaying the relevant events.


Objectives: To assess the awareness toward hypertension-related complications in patients with hypertension.


Patients and Methods: A quantitative-descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Kalar General Hospital in Kalar city from May 2022 to January 2023. About 250 patients with hypertension consented to participate in the study. Non-probability convince sampling method was used to select the participants. The data were collected through a questionnaire by direct interview.


Results: Most patients were aged between (40-65 years), females, married, housewives, illiterate, and lived in an urban area. The study's findings revealed insufficient awareness in >50% of patients. A highly significant correlation between awareness and the level of education has been founded and also a significant association with age, gender, and profession was found. While marital status and residency didn’t affect the awareness.


Conclusions: More than three quarter of patients were not aware or had inadequate awareness of hypertension complications.


Abseh M., Khalifa A., Alshaikh T., Alghazwani A., Kachkach A., Alosaimi M., Aseeri Y., Alanazi S.,

Habash N., Shaqaqiq R.(2020). Awareness regarding hypertension among Riyadh population 2017. DOI:

International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries. 4(1), 185–188.

Kearney P. M., Whelton M., Reynolds K., Muntner P., Whelton P. K., and He J.(2005). Global burden of

hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. The Lancet. 365(9455), 217–223.

Annadurai K.,(2018). Awareness and preventive practices related to hypertension among government school DOI:

teachers in rural Tamil Nadu. Journal of Comprehensive Health. 6(1), 09–13.

Haldar R. N. (2013).Global Brief on Hypertension: Silent Killer, Global Public Health Crisis. Indian Journal DOI:

of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 24 (1), 2–2.

Yennawar B., Chavan Y., and Giri P.(2015). Socio-demographic determinants and awareness regarding

hypertension among adult population in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. International Journal of Community

Medicine and Public Health. 2(4), 666–671.

Saka M., Shabu S., and Shabila N.(2020). Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in older DOI:

adults in Kurdistan, Iraq . Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 26(3), 268–275.

Mandago K. M. and F. P. Mghanga.(2018). Awareness of risk factors and complications of hypertension in

Southern Tanzania. Journal of Community Health Research. 7(3), 155–163.

Mirzaei M., Mirzaei M., Bagheri B., and Dehghani A.(2020). Awareness, treatment, and control of

hypertension and related factors in adult Iranian population. BMC Public Health. 20(1), 1–10.

Pahria T., Nugroho C., and Yani D. I.(2022). Factors Influencing Self-Care Behaviors in Hypertension DOI:

Patients With Complications. Vascular health and risk management. 18 (July), 463–471.

Sabouhi F., Babaee S., Naji H., and Zadeh A. H.(2011). Knowledge, awareness, attitudes and practice

about hypertension in hypertensive patients referring to public health care centers in Khoor & Biabanak.

Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research. 16(1), 34–40.

Mohammed A. H., Hassan B.A.R, Suhaimi A. M., and Ali A. H. H. D.(2021). Hypertension knowledge,

awareness, and attitude among the hypertensive population in Kuala Lumpur and rural areas in Selangor,

Malaysia. Journal of Public Health (Germany). 29(2),443–450.

Patnaik L., Paul K. K., Pattnaik S., and Sahu T.(2017). Lifestyle pattern and hypertension related

knowledge, attitude and practices among diagnosed patients of hypertension attending a tertiary care hospital.

Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 8(4), 108–111.

Shah S. S. H., Altimyat A. O. N., Alanazi S. R. R., Alruwaili B. A. S., and Alshammari Z. Q. F.(2019).

The evaluation of awareness level regarding the risk factors and complications of hypertension among the

normotensive and hypertensive adult population of Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of

Medical and Health Sciences. 13(3), 720–723.

Ulasi I. I., Ijoma C. K., Onwubere B. J. C, Arodiwe E., Onodugo O., and Okafor C.(2011). High prevalence DOI:

and low awareness of hypertension in a market population in Enugu, Nigeria. International Journal of

Hypertension. 2011, 5.

Tesfaye B., Haile D., Lake B., Belachew T., Tesfaye T., and Abera H.(2017). Uncontrolled hypertension

and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching and

Specialized Hospital: cross-sectional study. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 8(1), 21–29.

Almomani M. H., Akhu-Zaheya L., Alsayyed M. , and Alloubani A.(2022). Public’s Knowledge of

Hypertension and its Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study. The Open Nursing Journal. 16 (1), 1–11.

Mbabazi P. M. T., Chironda G., Gapira E.B, Claude S.J, Ndahayo D., and Rajeswaran L.(2022).

Awareness and self-care practice regarding prevention of chronic kidney disease among hypertensive patients

at the University Teaching Hospital of Butare, Rwanda. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

(December), 100390.

Rashidi Y., Manaflouyan H., Pournaghi Azar F., Nikniaz Z., Nikniaz L., and Ghaffari S.(2018).

Knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian hypertensive patients regarding hypertension. Journal of

Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research. 10(1), 14–19.

Karmakar N., Nag K., Saha I., Parthasarathi R., Patra M., and Sinha R.(2018). Awareness, treatment, and

control of hypertension among adult population in a rural community of Singur block, Hooghly District, West

Bengal. Journal of education and health promotion. 7(1), 134.

Mahmud Ahmed S., and Belaye Teferi M.(2016). Assessment of Knowledge, Self-care Practice, and

Associated Factors Among Hypertensive Patients the Public Hospital of Addis Ababa Ethiopia. International

Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. 2020. 6(2), 28.

Ashfaq T., Anjum Q. , Siddiqui H., Shaikh S., and Vohra E. A.(2007). Awareness of Hypertension among

patients attending Primary Health Care Centre and Outpatient Department of tertiary care hospital of Karachi.

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 57 (8), 396–399.

Wang Z., Wu Y., Zhao L., Li Y., Yang J., Zhou B., Li X., Wu Z., Wu G., Yu X., Yin H., Wang A.,

Hong Z., Haung M., Li Y., Liu X., Zhu L., Fu X., Zhang W., Guo J., Yang Y., Tian X., Yang R., Guo

D., Raun L.(1992-1998). Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the

middle-aged population in China. Hypertension Research, 2004. 27(10), 703–709. DOI:



How to Cite

Awareness regarding hypertension complications among hypertensive patients attending Kalar General Hospital in Sulaimaniyah province of Iraq. (2023). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 25(2), 8.