Non-Cyclical Mastalgia and its Effects on Daily Life among Women Visiting the Breast Disease Treatment Center at Shar Hospital in Sulaymaniyah City, Iraq


  • Kwestan Mohammed Rahim Department of Adult Health Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Heshw Othman Hamasur Researcher, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Khalat Kamal Rahim Researcher, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Darya Abdullah Rostam Researcher, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Non-cyclical mastalgia, Causes, lifestyle quality, Prevalence


Background: Breast discomfort or pain, known as mastalgia, is a frequent symptom among female patients throughout their lifespan. Identification of the underlying causes through evaluation and target imaging is required for the patients' comfort.


Aim: To assess the primary variables that cause non-cyclical mastalgia and how it affects women's lives.


Methods: A quantitative-descriptive prospective study on a randomized, selected sample group of 100 patients with non-cyclical mastalgia in Breast Disease Treatment Center at Sulaimaniyah was done. A prepared questionnaire was used to interview the participants from January 15 to January 22, 2023.


Results: Out of the 354 women who presented to the Breast Treatment Clinic during the study period, 100 (28.23%) were diagnosed with non-cyclical mastalgia. The common breast disorders among participants were simple, complex cyst and fat tissue necrosis on ultrasound. Mastalgia effects on daily life, interferes with usual sleep patterns of women (P=0.003), causes anxiety (P=0.001), had negative effect on exercise (P=0.002) and daily work (P=0.01) of women.


Conclusions: Women over 40 years old who experience fear, tension, and anxiety due to the consequences of mastalgia, which interfere with regular sleep patterns and have an adverse effect on exercise and regular job duties, and most of them have breast problems on imagining, are more likely to suffer from non-cyclical mastalgia.


Tahir M., Shamsudeen S. (2022). Mastalgia. StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing.

Komenaka I., Nodora J., Martinez M., Hsu C., Wong T., Shah A., Caruso D. (2022). Mastalgia is not an

indication for mammogram. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 35(5):998-1006.

Kanat B., Atmaca M., Girgin M., Ilhan Y., Bozdağ A., Özkan Z., Yazar F., Emir S. (2016). Effects of

mastalgia in young women on quality of life, depression, and anxiety levels. Indian Journal of Surgery. 78:96- DOI:

ElSherif A., Valente S. (2022). Management of Mastalgia. Surg Clin North Am. 102(6):929-946. DOI:

Groen J., Grosfeld S., Bramer W., Ernst M., Mullender M. (2017). Cyclic and non-cyclic breast-pain: A

systematic review on pain reduction, side effects, and quality of life for various treatments. European Journal

of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 219:74-93.

Mayo Clinic. (2023). Breast pain,

Eren T., Aslan A., Ozemir I., Baysal H., Sagiroglu J., Ekinci O., Alimoglu O. (2016). Factors effecting

mastalgia. Breast Care. 11(3):188-93.

Gautam S, Srivastava A, Kataria K, Dhar A, Ranjan P, Kumar J. (2016). New breast pain chart for objective

record of mastalgia. Indian Journal of Surgery. 78:245-8.

Balleyguier C, Arfi-Rouche J, Haddag L, Canale S, Delaloge S, Dromain C. (2015). Breast pain and

imaging. Diagnostic and interventional imaging. 96(10):1009-16.

Jokich PM, Bailey L, D’Orsi C, Green ED, Holbrook AI, Lee SJ, Lourenco AP, Mainiero MB, Moy L,

Sepulveda KA, Slanetz PJ. (2017). ACR Appropriateness Criteria® breast pain. Journal of the American

College of Radiology. 14(5): 25-33.

Scurr J, Hedger W, Morris P, Brown N. (2014). The prevalence, severity, and impact of breast pain in the DOI:

general population. The Breast Journal. 20(5):508-13.

Ahmad Adni LL, Norhayati MN, Mohd Rosli RR, Muhammad J. (2021). A systematic review and metaanalysis of the efficacy of evening primrose oil for mastalgia treatment. International journal of environmental DOI:

research and public health. 18(12):6295.

Basım P, Tolu S. Sleep disturbances and non-cyclical breast pain: where to break the vicious cycle?. Sleep

and Breathing. 2022; 26(1):459-68. DOI:

Khan SA, Apkarian AV. (2002). The characteristics of cyclical and non-cyclical mastalgia: a prospective DOI:

study using a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire. Breast cancer research and treatment. 75:147-57.

Bolat H, Aşcı Ö, Kocaöz S, Kocaöz S. (2022). Noncyclical and cyclical mastalgia in Turkish women:

Prevalence, risk factors, health-care seeking and quality of life. Health Care for Women International. 43(1-


Nie A, Wang C, Song Y, Xie X, Yang H, Chen H. (2018). Prevalence and factors associated with disturbed

sleep-in outpatients with ankylosing spondylitis. Clinical Rheumatology. 37:2161-8.

Mathias JL, Cant ML, Burke AL. (2018). Sleep disturbances and sleep disorders in adults living with DOI:

chronic pain: a meta-analysis. Sleep medicine. 52:198-210.

Ali SK. (2020). Risk Factors Related to Mastalgia. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology.


Mirghafourv and M, Ahmadpour P, Rahi P. (2020). Relationship between physical activity and cyclic DOI:

mastalgia in Iranian women. Shiraz E-Medical Journal. 21(3):88702

Hamawandi N. Mastalgia, Basrah Journal of surgery. 2010: 2:46-54. DOI:

Sivarajah R, Welkie J, Mack J, Casas RS, Paulishak M, Chetlen AL. (2020). A review of breast pain:

causes, imaging recommendations, and treatment. Journal of Breast Imaging. 2(2):101-11.

Kataria K, Dhar A, Srivastava A, Kumar S, Goyal A. (2014). A systematic review of current understanding

and management of mastalgia. Indian Journal of Surgery. 76:217-22.

Rosolowich V, Saettler E, Szuck B, Lea RH, Levesque P, Weisberg F, Graham J, McLeod L. (2006).

RETIRED: Mastalgia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 28(1):49-57. DOI:

Yıldırım AC, Yıldız P, Yıldız M, Kahramanca Ş, Kargıcı H. (2015). Mastalji ve Kanser İlişkisi: Prospektif

Çalışma. Meme Sagligi Dergisi/Journal of Breast Health. 11(2):88-91.

Malherbe K, Khan M, Fatima S. (2022). Fibrocystic breast disease. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.



How to Cite

Non-Cyclical Mastalgia and its Effects on Daily Life among Women Visiting the Breast Disease Treatment Center at Shar Hospital in Sulaymaniyah City, Iraq. (2023). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 25(2), 12.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>